Level Measurement Solutions for Water Treatment

Level Measurement Solutions for Water Treatment
This white paper presents a user’s guide to level measurement technology for the water and wastewater treatment industry, whether that instrumentation is for level measurement or open channel flow.

There are several applicable level measurement technologies that have been proven as viable solutions for a broad range of industrial and municipal water treatment applications. Because of the variety of applications that exist and the varying application conditions, no one technology is best suited in all cases. 

Point Level Versus Continuous

Regardless of application, there are two major classifications of level measurement instrumentation: point level and continuous level measurement.
  • Point Level (On/Off) measurement indicates the absence or presence of level at a certain threshold (point) within a vessel.  Point level switches are used as high level and spill prevention alarms, low level and pump protection alarms, and for pump control.
  • Continuous Level (Proportional) measurement indicates the level in a vessel over the full span of measurement.  These devices typically are used for process control as well as inventory control and management.
Technology Choices
The technologies used to measure level are affected differently by the varying process conditions. Below is a brief description of the different technologies commonly used in a water treatment facility.
  • RF Admittance/Capacitance employs a radio frequency signal and monitors for a change in capacitance indicating either the presence or absence of material or how much material is in contact with the sensor, making it highly versatile and a good choice for a wide range of conditions and materials for point or continuous level measurement.
  • Radar utilizes either Pulsed Wave or Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) through-air transmission that allows for accurate non-contact reading of reflected electromagnetic signals.
  • Magnetostrictive uses an electric pulse from ferro-magnetic wire to accurately detect the position of a float with embedded magnets.  As the pulse intersects the magnetic field from the float, a second pulse is reflected back to an electric circuit that accurately determines the distance and thus the level position.
  • Conductivity Switch measures the drop-in resistance that occurs when a conductive liquid is brought into contact with two probes or a probe and a vessel wall.
  • Ultrasonic (Point Level) measurement electronically resonates a crystal at a fixed frequency to generate sound waves that travel across an air gap to a second crystal.  As liquid fills the gap between the two crystals, the second crystal begins to resonate with the first.
  • Ultrasonic (Continuous Level) measurement uses a transmitter to generate an ultrasonic pulse and measures the time it takes for a reflected signal to return to the transducer to determine the level of a liquid.
  • Guided Wave Radar (GWR) utilizes a Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique by sending a highly focused electronic signal down a metallic rod or flexible cable wave guide. When the transmitted signal intersects the surface of a liquid it reflects back along the rod or cable to determine the distance traveled. Level position can then be easily inferred.
  • Hydrostatic measurement immerses a pressure transmitter with a sensing diaphragm and a sealed electronic circuitry that transmits an analog signal proportional to the liquid level above the sensor.
  • Float Switch relies on a low-density float mounted in a vessel that is magnetically coupled to a limit switch. A change in fluid height actuates a switch by moving the float.
  • Vibration/Tuning Fork is piezoelectrically energized and vibrates at a frequency of approximately 1200Hz.  When the fork is covered the process media, the frequency shifts. The frequency shift is detected by the internal oscillator and converted into a switching command.
Point Level Solutions
Advanced RF Admittance/Capacitance point level devices are the most versatile of the point level technologies, especially with process medias that can coat the sensor. They provide excellent spill/overfill protection. They are simple to install and have no moving parts, making them virtually maintenance free. Their robust design and circuitry make them an ideal solution for many water treatment applications.

Both tuning forks and ultrasonic gap switches provide reliable high- or low-level measurement in a variety of applications. For non-coating conductive liquids, conductivity switches provide economical priced measurement, while float switches can be used in many basic applications at very cost-effective prices.

Continuous Level Solutions
Mechanical systems such as floats and bubblers require extensive maintenance and are less reliable and accurate than electronic systems. Hydrostatic systems afford greater reliability, are simple to use and are able to transmit data to another receiver for remote monitoring, recording and control.

RF Admittance/Capacitance level is time proven and one of the best available technologies for indication and control. RF technology inherently provides the greatest accuracy and repeatability in interface measurements. Variations in the makeup of upper and lower phases of a liquid have no appreciable effect on system accuracy. Recalibration is not required.

For short span measurements, RF Admittance technology provides one of the most preferred measurements. As the level of measurement span decreases, the more appropriate RF technology becomes. In spans of only a few inches, RF systems can repeatedly produce accuracies of 1/32ths of an inch. RF has the added benefit of not being limited by “dead zones” that are inherent with many popular technologies that are typically selected for measurement ranges greater than 5 feet.

Non-metallic tanks pose no technical problems for Ultrasonic, Magnetostrictive, Hydrostatic Pressure, Radar and GWR (Guided Wave Radar) technologies. The GWR approach is suitable for vessels with internal obstructions and uses lower energy levels than airborne radar technologies. Non-contact technologies, such as Radar and Ultrasonic can have measurement ranges up to 130 feet. 

For long-range measurements or headroom limitations, flexible sensors offer insertion lengths up to several hundred feet for Hydrostatic Pressure and RF Admittance technology products. Loop-powered GWR (TDR)-based products allow measurement ranges up to 115 feet in selected applications. Magnetostrictive technology allows accuracy of 0.1% of measurement span in flexible sensor designs up to a maximum range of 70 feet.

Water Treatment Plant

Typical Applications-Continuous Level
LT1 Clarity Monitor:  Ultrasonic 
- LT-2 Water Filtration:  RF Admittance/Capacitance or Magnetostrictive
LT-3 Chemical Slurry Storage: Radar or RF Admittance/Capacitance
LT-4 Water Wells:  Hydrostatic Pressure or RF Admittance/Capacitance
LT-5 Mixing Tanks:  Ultrasonic, Radar or RF Admittance/Capacitance
- LT6 Chemical Slurries:  RF Admittance/Capacitance or Radar

Typical Applications-Point Level

- LS-1 Chemical Storage:  RF Admittance or Vibration (Tuning Fork)
- LS-2 Chemical Slurries:  RF Admittance or Vibration (Tuning Fork)
- LS-3 Pump Control/Protection:  RF Admittance/Capacitance
- LS-4 Mixing Tanks: RF Admittance/Capacitance or Vibration (Tuning Fork)